Table 1

Literature review of cases of complete extrusion of the distal end of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter in the last 20 years.

ReferencesCases (n)Extrusion typeExtrusion siteAge at presentation (yrs)Post-insertion duration (yrs)
Nourisamie et al,10 20011IntactLeft thigh<1 (10 mo)<1 (2 mo)
Pandey et al,11 20031IntactLeft posterior auricular region10.5<1 (6 mo)
Schulz and Labram,12 20061IntactEpigastric region2614
Kanojia et al,2 20084IntactRight lumbar region<1 (3-6 mo)<1 (1-3 mo)
IntactCervical region
IntactCervical region
WeaknessUmbilical region
Borkar et al,5 20081IntactRight anterior chest wall143
Vural et al,13 20081IntactSacrococcygeal region<1 (7 mo)<1 (7 mo)
Birbilis et al,8 20091IntactLeft paraumbilical region331
Silva Neto et al,9 20111IntactRight posterior abdominal wall55
Dağtekin et al,14 20111IntactUmbilical region21.7
Panigrahi et al,15 20122IntactEpigastrium<1 (7 mo)<1 (3 mo)
Oktay et al,16 20151IntactRight lumbar region11
Rehm et al,17 19971WeaknessScrotum464
Esposito et al,18 19981WeaknessUmbilicus14N/A
Wani et al,19 20021WeaknessUmbilicus1.5<1 (6 mo)
Silav et al,20 20021WeaknessUmbilicusN/AN/A
Chan et al,21 20031WeaknessLeft lumbar wound scar706
de Aquino et al,22 20061WeaknessUmbilicus1.6N/A
Eser et al,23 20061WeaknessUmbilicus<1 (3 mo)<1 (3 mo)
Kella et al,24 20081WeaknessUmbilicus1.51.4
Kumar et al,6 20101WeaknessUmbilicus<1 (3 mo)<1 (3 mo)
De Jong et al,7 20111WeaknessUmbilicus3838
Ghritlaharey et al,25 20124WeaknessNeck wound scar<121.4
WeaknessAnterior chest wall wound scar2
WeaknessUpper right abdomen wound scar<1 (2 mo)
WeaknessUmbilicus<1 (3 mo)
Aras et al,26 20131WeaknessPosterior abdominal wall wound scar1.8<1 (8 mo)
Fleissig et al,27 20131WeaknessUmbilicus822.3
  • N/A - not available, yrs - years, mo – months