Table 2

Central Nervous System complication and associated micronutrient.

ConditionsMicronutrient involved and likely pathology
Wernicke’s encephalopathyThiamin (Vitamin B1) deficiency
Episodic encephalopathyElevated D-lactate
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HAE)Elevated serum ammonia and plasma glutamine levels
Zinc deficiency
Underlying Urea cycle disorder
MyelopathyCobalamin (Vitamin B12) and Copper deficiency
Vitamin E, folate and B6 deficiency (less common)
Optic NeuropathyCobalamin (Vitamin B12) deficiency
Vitamin A, Copper and zinc deficiency (less common)
Spontaneous intracranial hypotensionVitamin A and D deficiency
Spontaneous CSF leakage
  • CSF - cerebrospinal fluid